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EEG Biofeedback (neurofeedback) is supported

by substantial peer-reviewed research

• Randomized controlled trials have found EEG neurofeedback to be equivalent to stimulant medication in treating the core symptoms of ADHD. 

Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen DI, Elegen IB. (2012). Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: A randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC Psychiatry, 12:107 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-107.

• In five studies EEG neurofeedback has been found to result in sustained benefits when reassessed even up to two years after the end of treatment (these findings are in contrast to the lack of sustained benefit from either behavior therapy or stimulant medication as documented in the MTA Cooperative study).

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P., & Heinrich H. (2010). Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-Month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 715-724.

• A 2009 meta-analysis of EEG neurofeedback involving 1,194 ADHD subjects concluded that neurofeedback meets the highest level of evidence-based support for the treatment of ADHD.

Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180-189

• A 2012 meta-analysis published in the Journal of Attention Disorders found EEG neurofeedback to be more than twice as effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD as compared to: working memory training, behavior modification, school-based behavior therapy, behaviorally-based parent training, and behavioral self-monitoring.

Hodgson, K. et al (2012). Nonpharmacological treatments for ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Attention Disorders, published online May 29, 2012, doi:10.1177/1087054712444732

EEG Biofeedback is an AAP evidence-based

intervention for attention disorders

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Every athlete participating in an impact sport should

have a baseline EEG brain map

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According to the peer-reviewed journal Clinical EEG & Neuroscience:


“Quantitative EEG has been shown to be highly sensitive (96%) in identifying post-concussion syndrome, and neurofeedback has been shown in a number of studies to be effective in significantly improving or redressing the symptoms of post-concussion syndrome”


Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 35, Number 4, Page 198, 2004

A routine brain map for adults age 40+ can significantly

help lower their risk of future dementia

According to the peer-reviewed journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia:


“Alzheimer’s research has shown that changes in the brain can occur up to 20 years or more before symptoms appear. Studies strongly support the use of EEG Neurofeedback as an early stage intervention.”


Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association

Volume 5, Issue 4, Supplement, Page e8, July 2009

Dementia Journal Cover.jpg

Additional Neurofeedback Peer-Reviewed Research

Attention Disorders

  1. Alegria AA, Wulff M, Brinson H, Barker GJ, Norman LJ, Brandeis D, Stahl D, David AS, Taylor E, Giampietro V, Rubia K. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Jun;38(6):3190-3209.

  2. Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39–43.

  3. Arns, M. (2012). EEG-based personalized medicine in ADHD: Individual alpha peak frequency as an endophenotype associated with nonresponse. Journal of Neurotherapy.

  4. Arns, M., Conners, C. K., Kraemer, H.C. (2013). A decade of EEG theta/beta ratio research in ADHD: a meta-analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 374-383. doi: 10.1177/1087054712460087

  5. Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180–189.

  6. Arns, M, Feddema, I, & Kenemans, J. (2014) Differential effects of Theta/Beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1019. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01019 

  7. Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (1996). Neurotherapy and alert hypnosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Chapter in S. J. Lynn, I. Kirsch, & J. W. Rhue (Eds.), Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press, 271–292.

  8. Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). Treating AD/HD with hypnosis and neurotherapy. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 25–42.

  9. Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 3–20.

  10. Becerra J, Fernndez T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, Garcia F, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcalá RA. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37 (3), 198–203.

  11. Bhayee S, Tomaszewski P, Lee DH, Moffat G, Pino L, Moreno S, Farb NA. Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial. BMC Psychol. 2016 Nov 29;4(1):60.

  12. Bink, M., Nieuwenhuizen, C., Popma, A., Bongers, I., Boxtel, G. (2015). Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(9), 1035-1048. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0655-3

  13. Boyd, W. D., & Campbell, S. E. (1998). EEG biofeedback in the schools: The use of EEG biofeedback to treat ADHD in a school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 65–71.

  14. Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 5–11.

  15. Breteler, R., Pesch, W., Nadorp, M. (2012) Neurofeedback in residential children and adolescents with mild mental retardation and ADHD behavior. Journal of Neurotherapy.

  16. Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001). EEG biofeedback training and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 5–27.

  17. Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66–67

  18. Coben, R., Wright, E. K., Decker, S. L., Morgan, T. (2015). The Impact of Coherence Neurofeedback on Reading Delays in Learning Disabled Children: A Randomized Controlled Study. NeuroRegulation 2(4), 158-178.

  19. Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204–208.

  20. Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen H, Brandeis D. (2007). Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with ADHD. Behavioral & Brain Functions, 3, 35.

  21. Dupuy, E. F., & Clarke, A.(2012). EEG activity in females with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

  22. Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen D, Duric Golos A, Elgen IB. Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;71(5):386-394. doi: 10.1080/08039488.2017.1305446. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

  23. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency Components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155–4159.

  24. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 131–139.

  25. Escolano, C., Navarro-Gil, M., Garcia-Campayo, J., Congedo, M., Minguez, J. (2014). The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 39(3-4), 193-202. doi: 10.1007/s10484-014-9257-6

  26. Eugene, A. L., Arns, M., Conners, K. deBeus, R., Hirshberg, L., Kerson, C. … Monastra, V. (2013). A proposed multisite double-blind randomized clinical trial of neurofeedback for ADHD: need, rationale, and strategy. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 420–436. doi: 10.1177/1087054713482580

  27. Eugene, A. L., Lofthouse, N., Hersch, S., Pan, X., Hurt, E., Bates, B., … Grantier, C. (2013). EEG neurofeedback for ADHD: double-blind sham-controlled randomized pilot feasibility trial. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 410–419. doi: 10.1177/1087054712446173

  28. Fehmi, L. G. (2007). Multichannel EEG phase synchrony training and verbally guided attention training for disorders of attention. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, 301–319.

  29. Fehmi, L. G. (1978). EEG biofeedback, multichannel synchrony training, and attention. Chapter in A. A. Sugarman & R. E. Tarter (Eds.), Expanding Dimensions of Consciousness. New York: Springer.

  30. Fehmi, L. G., & Selzer, F. A. (1980). Biofeedback and attention training. Chapter in S. Boorstein (Ed.), Transpersonal Psychotherapy. Palo Alto: Science and Behavior Books.

  31. Fernandez, T., Herrera, W., Harmony, T., Diaz-Comas, L., Santiago, E., Sanchez, L., Bosch, J., Fernandez-Bouzas, A., Otero, G., Ricardo-Garcell, J., Barraza, C., Aubert, E., Galan, L., & Valdes, P. (2003). EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Clinical Electroencephalography, 34(3), 145–150.

  32. Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35–46.

  33. Foks, M. (2005). Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 6777.

  34. Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365–274.

  35. Fritson, K. K., Wadkins, T. A., Gerdes, P., & Hof, D. (2007). The impact of neurotherapy on college students’ cognitive abilities and emotions. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(4), 1–9.

  36. Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 112.

  37. Gani C., Birbaumer N. & Strehl U.(2008). Long term effects after feedback of slow cortical potentials and of theta-beta amplitudes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 10(4), 209–232.

  38. Geladé K, Janssen TW, Bink M, van Mourik R, Maras A, Oosterlaan J. Behavioral Effects of Neurofeedback Compared to Stimulants and Physical Activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;77(10):e1270-e1277. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m10149.

  39. González-Castro, P., Cueli, M., Rodríguez, C., García, T., Álvarez, L. (2016). Efficacy of

  40. neurofeedback versus pharmacological support in subjects with ADHD. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 41(1),17-25. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9299-4

  41. Gross, E., El-Baz-Ayman A, S., Sokhadze, G, E. (2012). Induced EEG gamma oscillation alignment improves differentiation between autism and ADHD group responses in a facial categorization task. Journal of Neurotherapy.

  42. Hansen, L. M., Trudeau, D., & Grace, L. (1996). Neurotherapy and drug therapy in combination for adult ADHD, personality disorder, and seizure. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(1), 6–14.

  43. Heinrich, H., Gelvensleben, H, & Strehl, U. (2007). Annotation: Neurofeedback- train your brain to train behavior. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48(1), 3-16.

  44. Heywood, C., Beale, I. (2003). EEG biofeedback vs. placebo treatment for attention

  45. deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A pilot study. Journal of Attention, 7(1), 43-55. doi: 10.1177/108705470300700105

  46. Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315–319.

  47. Hodgson, K., Hutchinson, A. D., Denson, L. (2012). Nonpharmacological treatments for

  48. ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Attention Disorders, 18(4), 275-282. doi: 10.1177/1087054712444732

  49. Hong, C., Lee, I. (2012). Effects of neurofeedback training on attention in children with intellectual disability. Journal of Neurotherapy

  50. Jackson, G. M., & Eberly, D. A. (1982). Facilitation of performance on an arithmetic task as a result of the application of a biofeedback procedure to suppress alpha wave activity. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 7(2), 211–221.

  51. Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention, mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55–70.

  52. Janssen TWP, Bink M, Weeda WD, Geladé K, van Mourik R, Maras A, Oosterlaan J. Learning curves of theta/beta neurofeedback in children with ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 May;26(5):573-582. doi: 10.1007/s00787-016-0920-8. Epub  2016 Nov 19.

  53. Kaiser, D. A., & Othmer, S. (2000). Effect of Neurofeedback on variables of attention in a large multi-center trial. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(1), 5–15.

  54. Kirk, L. (2007). Neurofeedback protocols for subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, 267–299.

  55. Kotwal, D. B., Burns, W. J., & Montgomery, D. D. (1996). Computer-assisted cognitive training for ADHD: A case study. Behavior Modification, 20(1), 85–96.

  56. Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., & Nikishena, I. S. (2007). Changes in EEG spectograms, event-related potentials and event-related desynchronization induced by relative beta training in ADHD children. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(2), 3–11.

  57. Kropotov, J. D., Grin-Yatsenko, V. A., Ponomarev, V. A., Chutko, L. S., Yakovenko, E. A., Nildshena, I. S. (2005). ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 55(1), 23–34.

  58. Kwon, H., Cho, J., Lee, E. (2009). EEG asymmetry analysis of the left and right brain activities during simple versus complex arithmetic learning. Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(2), 109–116.

  59. La Marca, J. P., O’Connor, R. E. (2016). Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achieement in Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype. NeuroRegulation 3(2), 55-77.

  60. Lee EJ, Jung CH. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Asian J Psychiatr. 2017 Feb;25:16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2016.09.002. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

  61. Leins, U., Goth, G., Hinterberger, T., Klinger, C., Rumpf, N., & Strehl, U. (2007). Neurofeedback for children with ADHD: A comparison of SCP and theta/beta protocols. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 32(2), 73–88.

  62. Levesque, J., Beauregard, M., & Mensour, B. (2006). Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 216–221.

  63. Linden, M., Habib, T., & Radojevic, V. (1996). A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 21(1), 35–49.

  64. Lofthouse, N., Eugene, A.L., Hersch, S., Hurt, E., DeBeus, R. (2012). A review of

  65. neurofeedback treatment for pediatric ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(5), 351–372. doi: 10.1177/1087054711427530

  66. Loo, S., & Barkley, R. (2005). Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Neuropsychology, 12(2), 64–76.

  67. Lubar, J. F. (1985). EEG biofeedback and learning disabilities. Theory into Practice, 26, 106–111

  68. Lubar, J. F. (1995). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz (Ed.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide. New York, Guilford, 493–522.

  69. Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorders. Chapter in M. S. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A Practitioner's Guide (Third Edition New York, Guilford), 409–437.

  70. Lubar, J. O., & Lubar, J. F. (1984). Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 9, 1–23.

  71. Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1976). EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperactive child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): A preliminary report. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 1(3), 293–306.

  72. Lubar, J. F., & Shouse, M. N. (1977). Use of biofeedback in the treatment of seizure disorders and hyperactivity. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 204–251.

  73. Lubar, J. F., Swartwood, M. O., Swartwood, J. N., & O'Donnell, P. H. (1995). Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A., scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Biofeedback & Self-Regulation, 20(1), 83–99.

  74. Lutzenberger W, Elbert T, Rockstroh B, Birbaumer N. (1982) Biofeedback produced slow brain potentials and task performance. Biological Psychology, 14, 99–111.

  75. Malyutina, S. den Ouden, D.B. (2015). High-Definition tDCS of Noun and Verb Retrieval in Naming and Lexical Decision. NeuroRegulation 2(3), 111-125.

  76. Mayer, K., Wyckoff, S. N. (2012). Neurofeedback for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Investigation of slow cortical potential neurofeedback-Preliminary results. Journal of Neurotherapy

  77. McKnight, J. T., & Fehmi, L. G. (2001). Attention and neurofeedback synchrony training: Clinical results and their significance. Journal of Neurotherapy, 5(1–2), 45–62.

  78. Mohagheghi A, Amiri S, Moghaddasi Bonab N, Chalabianloo G, Noorazar SG,

  79. Tabatabaei SM, Farhang S. A Randomized Trial of Comparing the Efficacy of Two Neurofeedback Protocols for Treatment of Clinical and Cognitive Symptoms of ADHD: Theta Suppression/Beta Enhancement and Theta Suppression/Alpha Enhancement. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3513281. doi: 10.1155/2017/3513281. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

  80. Monastra, V. J., (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Rationale and empirical foundation. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14(1), 55–82.

  81. Monastra, V. J., Lynn, S., Linden, M., Lubar, J. F., Gruzelier, J., & LaVaque, T. J. (2005). Electroencephalographic biofeedback in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(2), 95–114.

  82. Monastra, V. J., Monastra, D. M., & George, S. (2002). The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 27(4), 231–249.

  83. Moghanloo, M., Aguilar Vafaie, M. E., Rostami, R., & Farahani, H. (2014). Determination of the Effects of Neurofeedback Training in the Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperativity Disorder. Journal of NeuroRegulation, 1(2), 131-150.

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  86. Norris, S. L., Lee, C-T., Burshteyn, D., & Cea-Aravena, J. (2001). The effects of performance enhancement training on hypertension, human attention, stress, and brain wave patterns: A case study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 29–44.

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