EEG Biofeedback (neurofeedback) is supported

by substantial peer-reviewed research

• Randomized controlled trials have found EEG neurofeedback to be equivalent to stimulant medication in treating the core symptoms of ADHD. 

Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen DI, Elegen IB. (2012). Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: A randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC Psychiatry, 12:107 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-12-107.

• In five studies EEG neurofeedback has been found to result in sustained benefits when reassessed even up to two years after the end of treatment (these findings are in contrast to the lack of sustained benefit from either behavior therapy or stimulant medication as documented in the MTA Cooperative study).

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B., Schlamp, D., Kratz, O., Studer, P., & Heinrich H. (2010). Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-Month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 715-724.

• A 2009 meta-analysis of EEG neurofeedback involving 1,194 ADHD subjects concluded that neurofeedback meets the highest level of evidence-based support for the treatment of ADHD.

Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180-189

• A 2012 meta-analysis published in the Journal of Attention Disorders found EEG neurofeedback to be more than twice as effective in treating the core symptoms of ADHD as compared to: working memory training, behavior modification, school-based behavior therapy, behaviorally-based parent training, and behavioral self-monitoring.

Hodgson, K. et al (2012). Nonpharmacological treatments for ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Attention Disorders, published online May 29, 2012, doi:10.1177/1087054712444732

EEG Biofeedback is an AAP evidence-based

intervention for attention disorders

Every athlete participating in an impact sport should

have a baseline EEG brain map

According to the peer-reviewed journal Clinical EEG & Neuroscience:

 

“Quantitative EEG has been shown to be highly sensitive (96%) in identifying post-concussion syndrome, and neurofeedback has been shown in a number of studies to be effective in significantly improving or redressing the symptoms of post-concussion syndrome”

 

Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, Volume 35, Number 4, Page 198, 2004

A routine brain map for adults age 40+ can significantly

help lower their risk of future dementia

According to the peer-reviewed journal Alzheimer’s & Dementia:

 

“Alzheimer’s research has shown that changes in the brain can occur up to 20 years or more before symptoms appear. Studies strongly support the use of EEG Neurofeedback as an early stage intervention.”

 

Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association

Volume 5, Issue 4, Supplement, Page e8, July 2009

Additional Neurofeedback Peer-Reviewed Research

Attention Disorders

  1. Alegria AA, Wulff M, Brinson H, Barker GJ, Norman LJ, Brandeis D, Stahl D, David AS, Taylor E, Giampietro V, Rubia K. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Jun;38(6):3190-3209.

  2. Alhambra, M. A., Fowler, T. P., & Alhambra, A. A. (1995). EEG biofeedback: A new treatment option for ADD/ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(2), 39–43.

  3. Arns, M. (2012). EEG-based personalized medicine in ADHD: Individual alpha peak frequency as an endophenotype associated with nonresponse. Journal of Neurotherapy.

  4. Arns, M., Conners, C. K., Kraemer, H.C. (2013). A decade of EEG theta/beta ratio research in ADHD: a meta-analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 374-383. doi: 10.1177/1087054712460087

  5. Arns, M, de Ridder, S, Strehl, U, Breteler, M, & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3) 180–189.

  6. Arns, M, Feddema, I, & Kenemans, J. (2014) Differential effects of Theta/Beta and SMR neurofeedback in ADHD on sleep onset latency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1019. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.01019 

  7. Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (1996). Neurotherapy and alert hypnosis in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Chapter in S. J. Lynn, I. Kirsch, & J. W. Rhue (Eds.), Casebook of Clinical Hypnosis. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association Press, 271–292.

  8. Barabasz, A., & Barabasz, M. (2000). Treating AD/HD with hypnosis and neurotherapy. Child Study Journal, 30(1), 25–42.

  9. Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 31(1), 3–20.

  10. Becerra J, Fernndez T, Harmony T, Caballero MI, Garcia F, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Santiago-Rodriguez E, Prado-Alcalá RA. (2006) "Follow-up study of Learning Disabled children treated with Neurofeedback or placebo." Clinical EEG & Neuroscience, 37 (3), 198–203.

  11. Bhayee S, Tomaszewski P, Lee DH, Moffat G, Pino L, Moreno S, Farb NA. Attentional and affective consequences of technology supported mindfulness training: a randomised, active control, efficacy trial. BMC Psychol. 2016 Nov 29;4(1):60.

  12. Bink, M., Nieuwenhuizen, C., Popma, A., Bongers, I., Boxtel, G. (2015). Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(9), 1035-1048. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0655-3

  13. Boyd, W. D., & Campbell, S. E. (1998). EEG biofeedback in the schools: The use of EEG biofeedback to treat ADHD in a school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 2(4), 65–71.

  14. Breteler, M. H. M., Arns, M., Peters, S., Giepmans, I., & Verhoeven, L. (2010). Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 5–11.

  15. Breteler, R., Pesch, W., Nadorp, M. (2012) Neurofeedback in residential children and adolescents with mild mental retardation and ADHD behavior. Journal of Neurotherapy.

  16. Carmody, D. P., Radvanski, D. C., Wadhwani, S., Sabo, J. J., & Vergara, L. (2001). EEG biofeedback training and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an elementary school setting. Journal of Neurotherapy, 4(3), 5–27.

  17. Carter, J. L., & Russell, H. L. (1991). Changes in verbal performance IQ discrepancy scores after left hemisphere frequency control training: A pilot report. American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback, 4(1), 66–67

  18. Coben, R., Wright, E. K., Decker, S. L., Morgan, T. (2015). The Impact of Coherence Neurofeedback on Reading Delays in Learning Disabled Children: A Randomized Controlled Study. NeuroRegulation 2(4), 158-178.

  19. Cunningham, M., & Murphy, P. (1981). The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visuospatial and creative skills in LD male adolescents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4), 204–208.

  20. Drechsler R, Straub M, Doehnert M, Heinrich H, Steinhausen H, Brandeis D. (2007). Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with ADHD. Behavioral & Brain Functions, 3, 35.

  21. Dupuy, E. F., & Clarke, A.(2012). EEG activity in females with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

  22. Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen D, Duric Golos A, Elgen IB. Multimodal treatment in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 6-month follow-up. Nord J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;71(5):386-394. doi: 10.1080/08039488.2017.1305446. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

  23. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency Components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. NeuroReport, 12, 4155–4159.

  24. Egner, T., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2004). EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: Frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 131–139.

  25. Escolano, C., Navarro-Gil, M., Garcia-Campayo, J., Congedo, M., Minguez, J. (2014). The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 39(3-4), 193-202. doi: 10.1007/s10484-014-9257-6

  26. Eugene, A. L., Arns, M., Conners, K. deBeus, R., Hirshberg, L., Kerson, C. … Monastra, V. (2013). A proposed multisite double-blind randomized clinical trial of neurofeedback for ADHD: need, rationale, and strategy. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(5), 420–436. doi: 10.1177/1087054713482580

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  32. Fleischman, M. J., & Othmer, S. (2005). Case study: Improvements in IQ score and maintenance of gains following EEG biofeedback with mildly developmentally delayed twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 35–46.

  33. Foks, M. (2005). Neurofeedback training as an educational intervention in a school setting: How the regulation of arousal states can lead to improved attention and behaviour in children with special needs. Educational & Child Psychology, 22(3), 6777.

  34. Fox, D. J., Tharp, D. F., & Fox, L. C. (2005). Neurofeedback: An alternative and efficacious treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 30(4), 365–274.

  35. Fritson, K. K., Wadkins, T. A., Gerdes, P., & Hof, D. (2007). The impact of neurotherapy on college students’ cognitive abilities and emotions. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(4), 1–9.

  36. Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J. H., & Kaiser, J. (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 112.

  37. Gani C., Birbaumer N. & Strehl U.(2008). Long term effects after feedback of slow cortical potentials and of theta-beta amplitudes in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism, 10(4), 209–232.

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  44. Heywood, C., Beale, I. (2003). EEG biofeedback vs. placebo treatment for attention

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  46. Hirshberg, L. M. (2007). Place of electroencephalographic biofeedback for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 7(4), 315–319.

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  51. Jacobs, E. H. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of two children with learning, attention, mood, social, and developmental deficits. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4), 55–70.

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