A robust body of neurophysiologic research is reviewed on functional brain abnormalities associated with depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. A review of more recent research finds that pharmacologic treatment may not be as effective as previously believed. A more recent neuroscience technology, electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback (neurofeedback), seems to hold promise as a methodology for retraining abnormal brain wave patterns. It has been associated with minimal side effects and is less invasive than other methods for addressing biologic brain disorders. Literature is reviewed on the use of neurofeedback with anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and with depression. Case examples are provided.
As reviewed in other articles, the neuroscience technology known as EEG
biofeedback (or neurofeedback) has considerable research support in areas such
as uncontrolled epilepsy and attention deficit disorder and ADHD. In evaluating
the studies in the overall broad area of the neurofeedback treatment of anxiety
disorders, EEG biofeedback qualifies for the evidence-based designation of
being an efficacious treatment . When separate anxiety disorders are
individually evaluated, the areas of phobic anxiety, generalized anxiety, and
PTSD each qualify for designation as being a probably efficacious treatment.